注册 VIP 会员
会员中心
佛门祈愿 福满人间:
《来自佛门的吉祥祝福》祈福珍藏册 迎请电话:010-51656995、 010-51385788;QQ:179518763;邮箱:qf@fjnet.com    
设为首页 加入收藏 网站地图
middle_nav_logol.gif
您目前的位置:佛教在线>首页 > 学术论文

Buddhism’s Maritime Route to China

2009年03月29日 15:14:00 佛教在线 点击:0

 

Charles Willemen

Belgium Royal Academy of Sciences

Abstract: Important cultural roads for Buddhism and its Mathurā art were the Ganges (sarvāstivāda, mahāsāmghika, pudgalavāda) and the Godāvarī (overwhelmingly mahāsāmghika, but also mahī?āsaka).  Amarāvatī’s art (second century) and also Nāgārjunakonda’s art (third century), inspired not only Anurādhapura, but southeastern Asia as a whole.  The maritime route went from southeastern India to the Malay Peninsula.  After a circumpeninsular navigation the route went to Funan, Bnam, in southern Cambodia and Vietnam, extending along the Gulf of Thailand to Tenasserim, the northern part of the Isthmus of Kra.  The historical period of this area was the third century till 627-649, when Zhenla took over.  Buddhism on this route was mahāsāmghika.  Important was Avalokite?vara, Nanhai Guanyin, who may have merged with Mazu along the southern Chinese coast. 

Key words: Andhra   Funan  Nanhai Guanyin  Mahāsāmghika

Charles Willemen: Lifelong member Belgian Royal Academy of Sciences.  Full Professor in Belgium since 1977.  Presently Vice Rector (Academic Research) International Buddhist College, Thailand.

Buddhism entered China mainly through Central Asia, coming from the Gandhāran cultural area.  The Prakrit (s) of that area explain(s) the ancient Chinese terminology.  The ancient translations from the middle of the second century A.D. until about 400 A.D., are mainly based on Prakrit(s).  During that period a Mahāyāna movement was developing in India.  This is the period of the Lotus Sūtra, of developing praj?āpāramitā literature, of Amitābha, of the Avatamsakasūtra, etc..  Bactria, an area of multiple cultural influences, an area from where there was easy access to China, is central in the development of these new kinds of Buddhism.  Bactria, for some time located in the Kusānā empire, was an area of sthaviras, i.e. of sarvāstivādins, of dharmaguptakas, and of pudgalavādins, but also of their rivals, the mahāsāmghikas.  The heterogeneous groups of  sarvāstivādins in the Gandhāran area, in the Bactrian area and in Central India are known as sautrāntikas from the time of  the sarvāstivāda synod in Ka?mīra on (end of the second century A.D.). 

From India

From India’s eastern coast ships left for southeastern Asia and ultimately for southeastern china.  The delta of the Ganges and the port of  Tāmraliptī were important, but Andhra, at the end of the Godāvarī River, was no less important during the first centuries A.D.. 

During the first centuries A.D. Andhra was ruled by ?ātavāhanas.  The first inscriptions mentioning them come from the caves of Nānāghā? and Nāsik in northern Mahārāstra, and from Sā?cī in eastern Mālwā.  The ?ātavāhanas were patrons of Prakrit.  Prakrit was used in Amarāvatī inscriptions (second century), and also in Nāgārjunakonda, which may be understood to be an extension of Amarāvatī in the third century.  A capital, Pratisthāna, on the upper Godāvarī, was one of the ?ātavāhana centers for a long time, certainly till the second century A.D., the reign of Vāsisthīputra Pulumāvi (ca. 130-159 A.D.).  The mahācaitya of Amarāvatī was probably built under his rule.  In 78 A.D., the first year of the ?āka era, an incursion led to the creation of two new ?aka kingdoms, i.e. that of the western satraps, Kùaharātas, destroyed in 125 A.D., and that of the great satraps of Ujjayinī, Kārdamakas, which disappeared between 388 and 409 A.D., conquered by Candragupta II.  In Chinese the ?aka rulers were called Sai Wang, which literally means ?aka ruler.  In Andhra the Iksvākus continued the ?ātavāhana rule in the third century, in Nāgārjunako?óa.  They ruled from ca. 225 till ca. 325.  The great stūpa of Nāgārjunakonda, their capital, was completed ca. 246-256.