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佛教と“和”の思想——木村清孝

2009年03月30日 10:38:00 佛教在线 点击:0

——佛教の伝播と民族性の关わりを理解する试みの一つとして―

木村清孝

  Professor, International College For Postgraduate Buddhist Studies

Ⅰ 佛典に表われる“和”、およびその类语

东アジアの佛教文献には、“和”という语やその熟语?类语が频繁に出现する。汉译佛典以外の中国语(汉语)、韩国语、および日本语の佛教文献においては、その使用频度はいっそう高くなろうが、汉译佛典に限っても、例えば、集团における“和合”を意味する场合のほか、法の“集合”、因缘の“结合”、あるいは业の“相续”を表す语としてもしばしば用いられるのである。汉语としての“和”の原义やその日本的な意味の变容に关する考察は别论に让るが、このような“和”とその类语の多用は、佛教そのものの思想的性格よりも、中国的ないし东アジア的な精神风土に起因するもののように思われる。

Ⅱ 平和の理想につながる“和”の思想

しかし、そうした“和”の用例を博搜して、それらを包括的に意味の上から分析し分类することはしばらく置く。今は、伦理的な样态に关わる佛教の“和”の原义を、代表的な汉译佛典の用法を手がかりとして考察をするにとどめる。

Ⅳ “和”と现代―结びに代えて―

以上、佛教における代表的な“和”の思想を考察し、それが‘宪法十七条’の“和”とどのように关连するかについて若干の考察を试みた。“和”の思想がグローバル化した现代において社会的意义をもちうるか、もしもつとすれば、それはいかなる意味においてであるか、という点をまず考える上で、これらの考察の结果には、さまざまな有益な示唆が含まれているといえよう。

Buddhism and the Concept of he (和) in East Asia:

For Elucidating a Phase of Relationship between Spread of Buddhism and Ethnicity

Kiyotaka  Kimura

In Japan, he (和. wa in Japanese) is still popular as an important tenet, taught by Prince Shōtoku (圣德太子. 574-622). He put down the Constitution of seventeen articles (宪法十七条), declared “he is precious (以和为贵)” on its first one, and opened the door to the nations in East Asia, standing on the base of equal partnership.

In this presentation, the author aims to analyze the concept of he as it appears in Chinese and Japanese Buddhist texts, especially Chinese Versions of the Buddhist Canons, and clarify its various meanings, some of which have been deeply influenced by Chinese thought.

Since the time of Early Buddhism, Buddhists have fundamentally attached importance to unification and harmonious relations of the order. For example, the famous Dhammapada (法句经)says,

sukhA saGghassa sAmaggI samaggAnaM tapo sukho.

[Peaceful is the unity of the SaGgha, peaceful is the austere life of those who dwell in unity]

Incidentally, the AbhidharmakoZa-bhASya (俱舍论)of Vasubandhu(世亲. ca.400-480), one of the most basic texts in Abhidharma Buddhism, quotes it as it is in order to verify the causality of naming. ParamArtha (真谛. 499-569) translates this later half of one verse ‘大众和合乐 聚集出家乐’ and Xuanzang (玄奘. 602-664) translates it ‘僧众和合乐 同修勇进乐’ respectively.

SAmaggI (SAmagrI  in Sanskrit), which probably means assemblage well united, in this context, was translated he (和) or hehe (和合) in China. Firstly, we can see that this seems to suggest the most basic sense of he in Buddhism.

Secondly, the idea of hejing (和敬), which relates with he mentioned above is also notable. In Buddhism, this idea served as the base of the theory of six kinds of hejing (六和敬), which means harmonious behaviors in the six fields of body (身), speaking (口), mind (意), ethical discipline(ZIla. 戒), view (见), and benefit (利) in general. But it dose not seem that this theory was formed before the occurrence of Mahayana Buddhism in the first century B.C. and widely prevailed all over the Buddhist world. The early Mahayana Scriptures, such as the MahAprajJA- pAramitA-sUtra(摩诃般若经), the AmitAyus-sUtra(阿弥陀经), and the VimalakIrti- nirdeZa-sUtra{维摩经}, have no interpretation of hejing. In addition, in Japan, the idea of hejing  has been taken seriously as presenting the soul of both host and guests, who should be generous and modest, in Sadō (茶道), i.e. Japanese tea ceremony.

Thirdly, there is the term of heyan-aiyu (和颜爱语. wagen-aigo in Japanese).This phrase is very popular in Japan. However, we can not find out any equivalent in the Sanskrit text of the AmitAyus-sUtra (无量寿经)to heyan, that constitutes the most well-known idiom in one of the Chinese versions of it. This version was translated by Kang Seng-kai (康僧铠) in the third century and later became a Bible of almost all Japanese schools of Pureland Buddhism.

Fourthly, we have to pay attention to the concept of heguang-tongchen (和光同尘. wakōdōjin in Japanese). This idiom originated in the Laozi(老子), and was accepted in Chinese Buddhism in two ways, i.e. one positive, and the other negative. We can see one typical example of the positive usage of this idiom in the Great Concentration and Insight (Mohezhiguan. 摩诃止观) delivered by Zhiyi (智顗. 538-597). He preaches that Bodhisattva on the first stage should moderate his ability to well touch with ordinary people through using it. The negative usage of it, in the expression of  butongqichen (不同其尘), which means that Mahayana Buddhists are never dirtied by worldly desires, appears in the MahAyAna- nirvANa-sUtra (大般涅槃经)translated by DharmakSema(昙无忏. 385-433).

In addition, this thought has further developed through mixture with Shintō (神道) in Japan. For example, a Buddhist text named BanshU-hōgoshU (播州法语集) , says, Ippen (一遍. 1239-1289), the founder of Ji-shū (时宗), preached that AmitAbha Buddha had transformed and appeared as the Kumano-god (熊野权现) in Japan through the function of wakōdōjin.

Lastly, the author considered the meaning of he advocated by Prince Shōtoku. Our Conclusion is that Prince Shōtoku’s concept of he was never buddhistic itself, but he put his foots on the Buddhist idea of sAmaggI and tried to apply it to the secular society by means of harmonizing with Chinese philosophical thought, especially the thought of ‘ Person in Attainment’(达者)in the Zhuangzi(庄子), at large.

His ideal would be worthy for us to learn in order to build up the International SaGgha, that is, the peaceful world all of us sincerely hope to realize now-a-days.

 

 

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