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佛法双语工作坊 | 佛说四十二章经 第12章(1)

2020年11月24日 15:28:00 天开寺 点击:0

The Sutra of Forty-two Chapters - 12 (1)
佛說四十二章經 第12章(1)
後漢 西域沙門迦葉摩騰 竺法蘭 同譯
Translated jointly by Indian Sramana Kasyapa Matanga and Dharmaraksa in the Later Han Dynasty

法师讲解  第2分钟38秒开始   单词 第6分钟42秒开始

第12章 舉難勸修
Difficulties as Encouragement for Cultivation

佛言。人有二十難。
The Buddha said: "There are twenty difficult things to attain [or to accomplish] in this world:

貧窮布施難。豪貴學道難。
(1) It is difficult for the poor to practise charity;
(2) It is difficult for the strong and rich to observe the Way;


棄命必死難。得覩佛經難。
(3) It is difficult to disregard life and go to certain death;
(4) It is only a favored few that get acquainted with a Buddhist sutra;


生值佛世難。忍色忍欲難。
(5) It is by rare opportunity that a person is born in the age of Buddha;
(6) It is difficult to conquer the passions, to suppress selfish desires;


見好不求難。被辱不瞋難。
(7) It is difficult not to hanker after that which is agreeable;
(8) It is difficult not to get into a passion when slighted;

有勢不臨難。觸事無心難。
(9) It is difficult not to abuse one's authority;
(10) It is difficult to be even-minded and simple-hearted in all one's dealings with others;


廣學博究難。除滅我慢難。
(11) It is difficult to be thorough in learning and exhaustive in investigation;
(12) It is difficult to subdue selfish pride;


不輕未學難。心行平等難。
(13) It is difficult not to feel contempt toward the unlearned;
(14) It is difficult to be one in knowledge and practice;


不說是非難。會善知識難。
(15) It is difficult not to express an opinion about others;
(16) It is by rare opportunity that one is introduced to a true spiritual teacher;


見性學道難。隨化度人難。
(17) It is difficult to gain an insight into the nature of being and to practise the Way;
(18) It is difficult to follow the steps of a savior;


覩境不動難。善解方便難。
(19) It is difficult to be always the master of oneself;
(20) It is difficult to understand thoroughly the Ways of Buddha."

英文版经文转载自 菩提字幕屋,英译者 D.T. Suzuki
English  version sourced from Bodhi Fansubs, translated by D.T. Suzuki

                         
法师讲解:舉難勸修(1)
Commentary:  Difficulties as encouragement for cultivation(1)


This chapter has listed out twenty types of hindrance against cultivation. We shall elaborate on some of them:
经文中列举出二十种修道难处,我们挑选以下一些特别的情况加以解释:

Difficult for the poor to give alms: It is true that poor people will have difficulty in money donation, but we have learned in Chapter 11 that the merit of alms giving depends mainly on mentality instead of object. Moreover, poor people can make offerings in terms of courage and the dharma. Giving hope and happiness to others, such as lending a helping hand, or showing appreciations, are within the scope of offering of courage. As for offering of the dharma, it includes teaching the dharma, and encouraging others to believe in karma or to take refuge in the Three Jewels. Offering of the dharma is also the most prestigious among the three kinds of alms giving.
貧窮布施難:穷人在财布施来说是难,但第11章曾经讲过布施的功德主要是论心境而不是论对境。而且贫穷人也可以作无畏布施或法布施。给人希望或欢喜,包括助人、赞美等都属于无畏布施。劝人深信因果,皈依三宝,乃至讲解佛法都是法布施,而三种布施中以法布施最为殊胜。

Difficult for the rich to practise: Affluent people, who possess wealth, power, and status, can easily lose themselves. First of all money can bring about a lot of temptation, and secondly practice may imply forfeiture of possessions. There is such a story from the Buddhist sutra: once a bhiksu was suffering from a serious sickness which nobody could cure. Venerable Master Moggallana yet thought of his disciple Jivaka who was a famous doctor. He had often offered medical treatments to monks and therefore had accumulated a lot of merits. It was just that Jivaka had been reborn in heaven after death. When Moggallana was looking for him in heaven, Jivaka happened to be on the ride for indulgence, and he only waved to Moggallana. As a result Moggallana stopped Jivaka by using supernatural power and reprimanded him. However Jivaka defended himself, saying that I have already done well; if other devas were me, they would ignore you.
豪貴學道難:因为富贵的人拥有财富、权力、地位,很容易迷失自我。金钱可以为他们带来很多的诱惑,而且学道意味着他们需要有所牺牲。佛经里有一个故事,一位比丘生病无人能治,目犍连尊者想起他的一位名医弟子耆婆,他专门为出家人治病,福报很大,但已死生天了。于是目犍连到天上找耆婆。当时耆婆正驱着车前往享乐,见到目犍连只向他挥了挥手,于是目犍连用神通把车停著训斥了耆婆一顿,但耆婆说我这样已经很好了,其他天人根本不会理你。

Difficult to experience the Buddhist sutras: The existence of Buddhist sutras follows the emergence of the Buddha. Dated from the beginning of human history which started several thousands of years ago all the way to the emergence of the next Buddha Maitreya coming in 5.7 billion years, Buddha Sakyamuni’s dharma, which will last for some ten thousand years only, is the only dharma that will exist during this period. Also only those human beings who have a karmic cause can learn and practice it.  
得覩佛經難:佛经是必须有佛出世才会出现的,从有史以来的几千年前一直到弥勒佛出世的五十七亿年后,只有释迦牟尼佛的法运一万多年,当中只有有缘的人道众生才能闻法修学。

Take the Surangama Sutra as an example; the Great Master Zhi Zhe (538 A.D. - 597 A.D.) , the founder of the Tian Tai School of Buddhism, set up a worship terrace at the peak of Tian Tai Mountain in quest of the Sutra. He worshiped and prayed for the Sutra there for 18 years till his great decease but without success. After more than a hundred years, Master Paramiti, an eminent monk from India, was deeply moved by the deeds of Master Zhi Zhe, so he was determined to bring the Surangama Sutra to China. However, circulation of the Sutra across the border was forbidden at that time. After several unsuccessful attempts, Paramiti hid the scrolls of the Sutra by sewing them into his arms, and successfully brought the Surangama Sutra to China eventually in 705 A.D. It is thus clear that the opportunity of hearing the dharma is very rare.  
就以《楞严经》为例,天台宗始创人智者大师(公元538-597年)为了拜读《楞严经》,在天台山顶设立拜经台,祈求礼拜了整整十八年,直至圆寂时都没有获得。百多年后印度高僧般剌密谛因为智者大师拜经的事迹深受感动, 决定把《楞严经》传到中国。但当时《楞严经》是禁止外传,经过了多次失败,最终般剌密谛把经卷藏在臂膊的肉里,在公元705年成功地把《楞严经》传到中国,可见遇到佛法的机遇是非常难得的。

讲解 | 释宏添   北京天开寺
By Bhiksu Hong Tian,  Tiankai Temple


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