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佛法双语工作坊 | 佛说四十二章经 第12章(2)

2020年12月08日 10:27:00 北京天开寺 点击:0

The Sutra of Forty-two Chapters - 12 (2)
佛說四十二章經 第12章(2)
後漢 西域沙門迦葉摩騰 竺法蘭 同譯
Translated jointly by Indian Sramana Kasyapa Matanga and Dharmaraksa in the Later Han Dynasty


法师讲解  第2分钟38秒开始   单词 第5分钟57秒开始

第12章 舉難勸修
Difficulties as Encouragement for Cultivation

佛言。人有二十難:
The Buddha said: "There are twenty difficult things to attain [or to accomplish] in this world:

貧窮布施難。豪貴學道難。
(1) It is difficult for the poor to practise charity;
(2) It is difficult for the strong and rich to observe the Way;


棄命必死難。得覩佛經難。
(3) It is difficult to disregard life and go to certain death;
(4) It is only a favored few that get acquainted with a Buddhist sutra;


生值佛世難。忍色忍欲難。
(5) It is by rare opportunity that a person is born in the age of Buddha;
(6) It is difficult to conquer the passions, to suppress selfish desires;


見好不求難。被辱不瞋難。
(7) It is difficult not to hanker after that which is agreeable;
(8) It is difficult not to get into a passion when slighted;


有勢不臨難。觸事無心難。
(9) It is difficult not to abuse one's authority;
(10) It is difficult to be even-minded and simple-hearted in all one's dealings with others;


廣學博究難。除滅我慢難。
(11) It is difficult to be thorough in learning and exhaustive in investigation;
(12) It is difficult to subdue selfish pride;


不輕未學難。心行平等難。
(13) It is difficult not to feel contempt toward the unlearned;
(14) It is difficult to be one in knowledge and practice;


不說是非難。會善知識難。
(15) It is difficult not to express an opinion about others;
(16) It is by rare opportunity that one is introduced to a true spiritual teacher;


見性學道難。隨化度人難。
(17) It is difficult to gain an insight into the nature of being and to practise the Way;
(18) It is difficult to follow the steps of a savior;


覩境不動難。善解方便難。
(19) It is difficult to be always the master of oneself;
(20) It is difficult to understand thoroughly the Ways of Buddha."


英文版经文转载自 菩提字幕屋,英译者 D.T. Suzuki
English  version sourced from Bodhi Fansubs, translated by D.T. Suzuki

                         
法师讲解:舉難勸修(2)
Commentary:  Difficulties as encouragement for cultivation(2)

Difficult to find a virtuous mentor: The Lotus Sutra mentioned that it takes very strong karmic causes to meet a virtuous mentor because a virtuous mentor is the one who can nourish our Bodhi mind and guide us towards Buddhahood. Some beginners prefer to learn by themselves through reading, but this kind of self-taught approach is unsound for Buddhism learning because it often causes departure from the right view.
會善知識難:《妙法莲华经》说遇到善知识是需要很大的因缘,因为善知识可以引导我们发菩提心,令我们得以成佛。有些初学者会喜欢自己看书,但无师自通的学佛方式是行不通的,因为这样很容易导致知见上的错误。

In the eightfold noble path, the right view ranks number one for it is like a navigator when we embark on a long journey. It ensures that travelers can reach the destination accurately without losing their bearing. On the journey towards Buddhahood, we can afford to advance steadily but not off the track. A virtuous mentor is our navigator to guide us towards the right view and thus liberation from cyclic rebirth.
八正道中以正见第一,它好比远行的导航仪,令远行者准确到达目的地,不会迷途。在学佛的道上,我们可以走得慢但不能走错方向。教授善知识就是我们的导航仪引导我们建立正确的知见,並带领我们了脱生死。

Apart from this, we also need companion mentors to provide mutual support, to encourage us whenever we are in self-indulgence, and to take care of us during sickness, etc. As for monastics, we also need supportive mentors to provide assistance to the Sangha so that we can stay focused on cultivation. Mentors can be categorized as above. Have you ever imagined that you can also be a mentor of others?   
除此之外,我们更需要同行善知识的互相扶持,当我们放逸时作提点,在我们生病时加以照顾等。对出家人而言,我们也需要外护善知识来护持僧团,令出家人安心修道。善知识是可以按上述那样分类,你有否想过自己也可以成为别人的善知识?

Difficult to liberate others: modern education advocates teaching in accordance with students’ aptitude; the Buddhas also have the perfect wisdom to understand the aptitude of every sentient being, and thus to tell them the suitable dharma accordingly. For this reason, the five vehicles of Buddhism come into being. Nevertheless, the Buddhas’ ultimate goal is to help us attain buddhahood. In the Lotus Sutra, Sakyamuni Buddha had told 7 important parables, namely:
the Burning House,
the Prodigal Son,
the Medicinal Herbs,
the Phantom City,
the Gem in the Jacket,
the Gem in the King's Top-Knot,
and the Excellent Physician.
隨化度人難:现代教育讲求因材施教,佛陀的智慧能了知每一个众生的根器,並对机说法,所以有五乘佛法的出现,但最终目的都是为了令众生成佛。在《法华经》中,释迦牟尼佛说出了七个重要寓言故事,分别为:火宅喻、穷子喻、药草喻、化城喻、衣珠喻、髻(jì)珠喻、医子喻。

Each of the parables represents a skillful means leading to buddhahood finally. Take the Buddha’s disciple Panthaka as an example; he was such a slow-witted person who had a very poor memory. He was not able to learn four statements of verse in 3 months, and even his elder brother suggested him to go home. However the Buddha assigned him sweeping the floor and asked him to recite the two words “clean up” repeatedly. Very soon his karmic obstacles were eliminated, and his wisdom manifested to turn him into an arhat. When we want to do missionary work to someone, we also have to use the right means, or it may just become counterproductive.   
就当中每一个都是一种善巧方便,希望众生最终成佛。像佛陀的弟子槃陀伽, 他是个很迟钝的人,记性特别差,学四句偈子三个月都不会,连他哥哥都劝他回家,但佛陀就吩咐他扫地,並反复念着“除垢”两个字,很快他的业障消除,智慧得以显现,最后证得阿罗汉果。我们度人也得用对方法,否则可能会得到反效果。


讲解 | 释宏添   北京天开寺
By Bhiksu Hong Tian,  Tiankai Temple




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